US FDA finally approves Pfizer/BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine for the country
An emergency approval has been given for the use of a coronavirus vaccine developed by Pfizer and BioNTech, by the US Food and Drug Administration.
This is making it the first drug to prevent Covid-19 approved in the US.
Dr Stephen Hahn, the FDA commissioner, confirmed the news in a statement on Friday night.
According to Hahn “The FDA’s authorization for emergency use of the first Covid-19 vaccine is a significant milestone in battling this devastating pandemic that has affected so many families in the United States and around the world”.
The FDA approval marks a turning point in a pandemic that has claimed more than 294,000 American lives and 1.5 million lives globally.
With the approval, the US now follows other countries, which include the UK, Canada and Mexico, who also authorized the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine for broader public use.
“While not an FDA approval, today’s emergency use authorization of the Pfizer-BioNTech Covid-19 vaccine holds the promise to alter the course of this pandemic in the United States,” said Peter Marks, the director of the FDA’s Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, in a statement.
“With science guiding our decision-making, the available safety and effectiveness data support the authorization of the Pfizer-BioNTech Covid-19 vaccine because the vaccine’s known and potential benefits clearly outweigh its known and potential risks.”
In his reaction through a video posted on Twitter on Friday night, Donald Trump, the US president praised the vaccine as “one of the greatest scientific accomplishments in history”, and said the first dose would be administered in less than 24 hours.
Recall that the FDA authorized the vaccine, called BNT162b2, after a trial involving more than 43,000 people found it was effective at preventing the coronavirus 95% of the time.
The vaccine uses innovative messenger RNA technology to introduce the body to the spike protein on the surface of the coronavirus and the results of the trial were published in the New England Journal of Medicine on Thursday.
At the moment scientists are still studying how long the immune response provoked by the vaccine will last, called the “duration” of immunity, the rate of asymptomatic disease among people who receive the vaccine, and whether the vaccine can prevent transmission of Covid-19. It is expected that the vaccine will be authorized for people aged 16 years and older in the US. Pfizer is continuing to study the vaccine in children aged 12-15.
The plan for now is for various states to receive an initial allotment of 2.9m doses, sent directly from Pfizer within days of authorization. Those doses will be distributed among healthcare workers and long-term care residents, who were deemed the highest priority for vaccination by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Then weeks later, Pfizer will send out a second 2.9m dose allotment, for the same people to receive a booster shot, necessary to achieve the vaccine’s 95% efficacy. The administration is aiming to vaccinate 20 million health workers and residents of long-term care homes before the end of the year.
The vaccine distribution is expected to be among the most logistically complex public health campaigns in history. The vaccine requires storage at -94F (-70C), and Congress has failed to provide funding needed to advance the effort, leaving stretched public health authorities on their own to distribute it.
Experts have continued to warn it will not immediately herald a return to normalcy, despite its high effectiveness.
Initial supplies of the vaccine will be extremely constrained, with some experts predicting the vaccine will not reach lower-risk adults until sometime in the mid 2021.
For this reason, individual Americans will need to continue to wear masks, social distance, hand-wash and avoid crowds, while public health agencies continue to test and contact trace, to eventually bring the pandemic to heel.
Federal health authorities are targeting to vaccinate 20 million people before the year is out. That number would still fall short of vaccinating all of the nation’s 21 million healthcare workers and 3 million long-term care residents.
An advisory panel of FDA will hear evidence on a second vaccine next week, this one developed by Moderna and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and called mRNA-1273.
Already the Trump administration has issued another indication of support for the Moderna vaccine on Friday evening, when it announced the government had purchased an additional 100m doses. That brings the total doses purchased to 200m, and will allow for “continuous delivery” of vaccine through June 2021.